[1] Note that volunteer spotters are quite distinct from the so-called cooperative observers who provide the National Weather Service with climatological observations. Some overlap might occur, but it is strictly coincidental.

[2] This event was described as another "Tri-State" tornado by Lynch (1967). Doswell and Burgess (1988) have indicated that it most likely was a family of tornadoes rather than a single, long track tornado. The event left devastation in its track across the Texas Panhandle, northwestern Oklahoma (including the city of Woodward), and southwestern Kansas.

[3] To this day, spotters have difficulties in the eastern third of the nation, because low clouds, haze, vegetation, complex terrain, and human construction all act to limit the visibility of tornadoes. Nevertheless, considerable effort is still being put into development of spotter programs across the nation.

[4] This group has been moved again, this time to be colocated with the National Severe Storms Laboratory, in Norman, Oklahoma.

[5] Other team members included: Roy Fox (Regional Director, Weather Bureau Central Region), Dr. Edwin Kessler (Director, National Severe Storms Laboratory), Allen D. Pearson (then Head of Emergency Warnings Branch, Weather Bureau Headquarters, soon thereafter to be appointed the director of the National Severe Storms Forecast Center), and Herbert Lieb (Acting Director, Public Information Office, Weather Bureau Headquarters)

[6] The NWS must be invited formally to perform this task, but local offices certainly do their best to encourage communities to extend the invitation.

[7] See Ostby (1992) for a discussion of National Severe Storms Forecast Center (NSSFC) operations; the NSSFC has become the SPC.

[8] In the future, the watch responsibility may be transferred to the local offices, as part of the modernization and restructuring of the NWS.

[9] As already noted, to some unknown extent, this trend has been influenced by changing demographics.

[10] Obviously, these numbers are essentially arbitrary.

[11] This figure is taken from the Website presentation of Molly K. McCauley at: <http://www.dir.ucar.edu/esig/socasp/weather1/macauley.html> who states therein that "Numerous studies suggest that the value of a statistical life is around $8 million ... ."

[12] In this event, where several homes without basements were swept completely off their foundations, taking shelter in an interior room was inadequate protection. Although safety rules make it clear that below-ground shelters are preferred, interior rooms are normally adequate for all but the most violent tornadoes. Inevitably, a few unlucky people taking shelter in interior rooms will become casualties in unusually damaging tornado events.